Over the last several years, the policy to prevent and treat drug-resistant TB has improved substantially—so much so that most TB programs have introduced modern molecular diagnosis and the programmatic treatment of MDR-TB. Yet while the landscape on policy has changed dramatically, most drug-resistant patients go undiagnosed and untreated.

The goal of this pocket guide, which was funded by USAID though the TB CARE II Project, is to provide practitioners useful information for the clinical management of MDR-TB patients. We have drawn from WHO international guidelines whenever possible. Where WHO guidelines do not cover a specific topic, we have provided recommendations based on our interpretation of cohort studies, clinical trials, case reports, and personal experience.

The pocket guide is a revision of The PIH Guide to the Medical Management of MDR-TB (2003). This second edition has further grown out of our familiarity in treating drug-resistant TB in many different regions of the world—Eastern Europe, South America, North America, Asia, and Africa—where it is clear that successful prevention and treatment of MDR-TB can be achieved. The guide has added material and experiences from a host of institutions that form the coalition of TB CARE I and II. It is hoped that all national TB programs implementing MDR-TB care can benefit from this guide, as well as individual providers.

TB CARE II is funded by USAID under Cooperative Agreement Number AID-OAA-A-10-00021. The TB CARE II project team includes prime recipient, University Research Co., LLC (URC), and sub-recipient organizations Jhpiego, Partners In Health (PIH), Project HOPE along with the Canadian Lung Association (CLA); Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); Dartmouth Medical School: the Section of Infectious Disease and International Health; Euro Health Group; MASS Design Group; and The New Jersey Medical School Global Tuberculosis Institute.